To achieve a clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Listed below are some of the most commonly used styles.
Table of Contents
A citation, or reference is a description of a particular book, article, or website. They refere to sources that are used within a research paper, thus avoiding plagiarism.
Citations contain all the information that you need to identify and locate an item, they are neccessary for making sure that others can get back to an original source of infomation.
Below is an example of reference information provided for a journal article by the EBSCOHost database, Academic Search Complete.
|Testing for bias in a sentinel species: Contaminants in free-ranging domestic, wild, and hybrid mink. Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G.; Martin, Pamela A.; McDaniel, Tana V.; Nituch, Larissa A.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I. EnvironmentalResearch. Jan2012, Vol. 112, p77-82. 6p. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.11.004.|
The reference contains the article title, subtitle, authors, journal title, date of publication, journal volume, what pages the article is found on, the number of pages the article is in the journal, and the digital object identifier which is a permanent Web address assigned to a particular article in an online database.
The reference information shown in the example above is not styled. When you cite your sources in an academic paper, you will be required to style the reference information according to the guidelines given to you by your professor.
The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision.
To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as
- punctuation and abbreviations
- construction of tables
- selection of headings
- citation of references, and
- presentation of statistics
Many different citation styles exist and each has it's own set of rules about how the information is presented. The style that you use to cite your sources is usually determined by your subject matter, or by your professor.
|Common Citation Style Examples|
|APA||(Author, Year)||Author. (Year). Title (Edition ed., Vol. Volume). (Editor, Ed., & Translator, Trans.) City, State/Province, Country/Region: Publisher.|
|MLA||(Author)||Author. Title. Ed. Editor. Trans. Translator. Edition. Vol. Volume. City: Publisher, Year. #of vols. Medium. Day Accessed Month Accessed Year Accessed. <URL>.|
|Chicago||(Author Year)||Author. Title. Edition. Edited by Editor. Translated by Translator. Vol. Volume. #of Volumes vols. City, State/Province: Publisher, Year.
A bibliography is a list of all sources used in a research paper that usually appears as an appendix at the end of the paper. Depending on what citation style you are using and what type of work you are citing, entries in a bibliography may contain any of the the following details:
* denotes most typically required details, additional details are valuable to note if available, but usually only required when requested by the individual or institution you're submitting your paper to.